Physiography of Rajasthan

Rajasthan is dominated by a varied topography of low Aravalli hills, featureless sandy plains; the entire Rajasthan is an old structural rigid mass of the peninsular India which has remained almost unaltered since the Jurassic age (190 million years ago) except for the sandy desert of the west where the recent sand of Aeolian origin exists. Aravallis are the most domination mountains that stretch from south-west to north-east intersecting Rajasthan from one end to another and dividing it into two unequal halves .Most of the area of Rajasthan lies between 150 to 600 m height except for the southern and south-eastern parts which ate plateaus and low hills. The Aravallis are low mountains possessing the oldest geological records of India, having pre-Cambrian rocks which formed here ever since the earth cooled down and started taking a solid shape.

Physiographically, Rajasthan may be divided into the following 4 major regions:

A. Western Sandy Plains

  • (a) The Arid plains of the Thar Desert
  • (b) The semi-Arid Plains of the Bangar Region:
  • i. Ghaggar Plains of older Alluvium
  • ii. The Shakhawati Region
  • iii. The Nagaur Uplands
  • iv. The Luni Basin

B. The Aravalli Region

  • (a) The North-Eastern Low Hills
  • (b) The Central Aravallies
  • (c) The Mewar Hilly Region
  • (d) The Abu Block

C. The Eastern Plains

  • (a) The Chambal Basin
  • (b) The Banas Basin
  • (c) The Mahi Basin or Chhapan Plains

D. The Harauti Plateau

  • (a) The vindhyan Scarps
  • (b) The Malwa Plateau Region

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